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Viresh Mohanlal and Matthew R. Weir

In the United States, the number of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance dialysis has increased 20 percent in the last decade to 1700 per million, and 100,000 new cases are added every year. The largest increase in both incident and prevalent cases of ESRD has been in individuals ≥65, with rates three- to fourfold higher compared with younger individuals (Figure 1). Nearly 50 percent of all patients on dialysis are ≥65. This increase in the older patient population is likely due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes and hypertension that has contributed to a rise