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Sharon M. Moe

Phosphorus levels are elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease due to decreased urinary excretion. Higher levels of blood phosphorus are associated with increased mortality in patients on dialysis, patients with kidney disease not yet on dialysis, and in the general population. In animal studies, adding phosphorus to the diet causes calcification of arteries and progression of kidney disease.

In the petri dish in the lab, adding phosphorus to artery vascular smooth muscle cells results in a change of the cell to become a bone-like cell and to calcify. This and other data support the hypothesis that phosphorus is a

Sharon M. Moe

Phosphate is a true uremic toxin. Cross-sectional studies in patients undergoing dialysis uniformly demonstrate an increased risk of mortality with increasing phosphate levels. The population-attributable risk of mortality in dialysis patients is markedly greater for phosphate than anemia or urea reduction ratio. Additional cross-sectional studies in patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are not yet receiving dialysis have demonstrated that phosphate levels in the upper quartile or tertile within this normal range have increased cardiovascular and/or all-cause mortality. In vitro, animal, and some human studies demonstrate that control of extracellular phosphate levels attenuates the process of vascular

Sharon M Moe

Phosphorus levels are elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease due to decreased urinary excretion. Higher levels of blood phosphorus are associated with increased mortality in patients on dialysis, patients with kidney disease not yet on dialysis, and in the general population. In animal studies, adding phosphorus to the diet causes calcification of arteries and progression of kidney disease.

Sharon M. Moe, Deidra C. Crews, Orlando M. Gutiérrez, Pamela Hoyt-Hudson, Susie Q. Lew, Beth Shanaman, Barry H. Smith, Daniel E. Weiner, and Donald Wesson

Health food stores abound in strip malls. Vitamin shops are a multibillion dollar business. Consumer labeling such as “gluten free,” “heart healthy,” “organic,” “non-GMO” and “contains anti-oxidants” adorn food labels, encouraging purchase. Organic foods and farmers markets have become the newest trend. The overall goal of equating nutrition with health is becoming better recognized, but messaging is filled with contradictions from food marketers, the media, and health care. People generally want to be healthy and recognize that good food may be the way to go, but following a “diet” can have a negative, forced, or even punitive connotation. “Diet” usually