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Pooja Amarapurkar, Pooja Kalantri, Levard Roberts, and Jose Navarrete

Sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait are associated with several kidney abnormalities. The inner medullary environment of the kidney with low oxygen tension, hyperosmolarity, and acidemia is an ideal setup for hemoglobin polymerization and sickling. Repeated hemolysis, vaso-occlusive episodes, subsequent reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation lead to acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (1, 2). The various kidney manifestations of sickle cell disease are summarized in Table 1.

Kidney manifestations of sickle cell disease

Glomerular hyperfiltration and lower mean arterial pressure occur in early years of life. With advancing age,