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Jens Titze

Body sodium content is most intimately coupled with extracellular water content. The idea is that body fluids inside and outside the cells readily equilibrate, resulting in constant electrolyte concentrations in extra- and intracellular fluids. This concept of constancy of internal environment composition is perhaps one of the hallmarks of medical physiology established by Claude Bernard in the 19th century (1). Sodium homeostasis seems to perfectly fit into this model. Sodium is the major cation in the extracellular fluid compartment where it acts to hold water, thereby determining the extracellular volume. Elaborated from this model, three major assumptions dominate