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Kerry Barker, Ken Story, and J. Kyle Wathen

Would you bet $25 to win $100?

We would gladly take the bet if the chance of winning were 96 percent. We certainly would not change our minds if the odds dropped to 94 percent. However, many scientists make different decisions on the basis of the p values inherent in this example—whether p = 0.04 or p = 0.06.

Most scientists utilize Frequentists statistics to prevent abuse of data. Frequentists require that you specify your hypothesis, statistical test, and the criteria of success in advance. Often this criterion is a “significant” p value, especially in medical studies. While p ≤