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Dorry Segev

In 1995, Ratner, Kavoussi, and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University revolutionized live kidney donor transplantation through the development of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (1). Since then, the number of live donor transplants in the United States doubled, the number of live donors who are not biologically related to the recipient rose by more than fivefold, and the proportion of donor nephrectomies performed laparoscopically (or laparoscopically assisted) neared 100 percent. Today, approximately one-third of donor nephrectomies are performed using pure laparoscopic techniques, and approximately two-thirds are performed with the additional insertion of one of the surgeon’s hands into the

Krista L. Lentine and Dorry L. Segev

The expansion of kidney transplantation from living donors over the last several decades has included greater racial and ethnic diversification of the donor population. In the United States, the fraction of non-white living kidney donors rose from 24 percent in 1988 to 30 percent in 2011, representing more than 1700 donors. Currently, 12 percent of living kidney donors in the United States are African American and 13 percent are Hispanic. Because most countries, including the United States, do not currently maintain national registries that effectively track long-term donor outcomes, much of the information on postdonation health has been drawn from