Findings

Patients assigned to off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have a lower risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) but no reduction in the rate of reduced kidney function 1 year later, reports a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Illicit drug abuse is associated with a “broad but unspecific” range of pathologic changes in the kidneys, according to a postmortem analysis in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

For carefully selected adults aged 55 or older, the risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality after living kidney donation are no higher than in healthy nondonors, according to a study in the American Journal of Transplantation.

Especially in older patients, the burdens of intensive glucose-lowering treatment for type 2 diabetes—particularly with insulin—may exceed the benefits, suggests a study in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Kidney function declines of less than a doubling of serum creatinine are common and are strong predictors of ESRD and mortality, according to a meta-analysis in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Primary care physicians (PCPs) generally agree with clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease (CKD), but they are less familiar with albuminuria, and they perceive barriers to its measurement, reports a study in BMC Nephrology.

Prophylactic antibiotics lower the recurrence rate in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) but do not affect the risk of renal scarring, concludes a randomized trial in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The multicenter trial included 607 children with VUR diagnosed after one or two episodes of urinary tract infection with fever. The median age was 12 months; 92 percent of the patients were girls.

For primary care patients with hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors, a blood pressure self-monitoring intervention—including self-titration of medications—yields greater reductions in systolic blood pressure at 1 year, concludes a randomized trial in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Higher dietary acid load is associated with albuminuria and other risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to a report in BMC Nephrology.

The study included data from 12,293 adults participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys between 1999 and 2004. Diet-dependent acid load was assessed in terms of estimated net acid excretion (NAEes), based on nutrient intake and body surface area. Associations of NAEes with advanced stages of CKD, albuminuria, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were assessed.

For patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD), urinary sodium excretion rate is not associated with the long-term risk of kidney failure, reports a study in Kidney International.

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