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Acute kidney injury (AKI) does not discriminate in its impact. From the very young to the elderly, it can strike at any time, stems from a wide variety of causes, and demonstrates a complex variety of symptoms. The resulting kidney damage is often severe and life-threatening.

THE “R” FOR RENAL WAS RECENTLY ADDED TO ONE OF ASTRAZENECA’S THERAPEUTIC AREAS. WHAT LED TO THIS ADDITION OF “RENAL” TO THE CARDIO PLUS METABOLIC AREA?

There is no denying that machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) are very much in vogue across the healthcare landscape. AI was a key topic in the president’s address by Mark Okusa, MD, FASN, at last year’s ASN Kidney Week in San Diego.

If it seems like you’ve been seeing more published papers on diabetic kidney disease in recent years, you’re not mistaken. The number of DKD studies has risen rapidly and steadily over the past two decades, according to a review and meta-analysis published in the journal Medicine. And this study included a time period prior to the more recent spate of clinical trials.

A multitude of clinical effects beyond glycemic control have placed glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists front and center in the fields of diabetology, cardiology, and nephrology. These incretin-based antihyperglycemic agents reduce the risk of new or worsening kidney disease and decrease the risk of cardiovascular death and atherosclerotic events (15).

After a long period of very few drug choices for the management of type 2 diabetes, during the past 15 years a range of new drug classes has been developed (1). One of these is the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, including drugs such as sitagliptin, saxagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, and linagliptin.

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