Studies have shown gender disparities in care for many chronic diseases, and ESRD is no exception.

Investigators who are designing clinical trials and preclinical studies have realized that results found in males do not always hold true in females, and that there are clear differences in the sexes that should be considered when preventing and treating a wide variety of health issues.


Enigmas abound in the clinical care and research related to acute kidney injury (AKI). Unfortunately, little conversion of research findings to changes in patient care has occurred.

Increasingly in the 21st century, nephrologists and other physicians are turning to social media (SoMe) and internet-based forums to teach the next generation, treat their patients better, and bolster their knowledge.