Only about one-third of the staff in the dialysis program at the University of Virginia Health system has been vaccinated against coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) so far, according to the program’s administrator, Debbie Cote, BN, MSN.

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter host cells. Early in the pandemic, several basic science studies were often cited and suggested that ACE inhibitors (ACEis) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may have an effect to increase the abundance of ACE2 (1).

End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), which requires kidney replacement therapy (KRT) or comprehensive conservative management, burdens patients, their families and caregivers, and the healthcare system.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has had a significant impact on transplantation, with mortality rates in transplant recipients ranging from 10% to 20% (1).


Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, nephrologists have made adjustments to best care for patients. Now they are taking stock of how kidney care has changed and considering which of those changes might stick moving forward.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be a complication seen in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are on glucose-lowering agents. Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of chronic kidney disease, and the presence of diabetes is an independent risk factor for both AKI and poor clinical outcomes.

More than 35 years ago, continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was introduced by Kramer and colleagues (1) in order to optimize volume in hemodynamically compromised individuals with insufficient urine output.