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A diet higher in calcium and potassium intake may help to reduce the risk of recurrent kidney stones, concludes a study in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

The prospective study included 411 patients with their first episode of symptomatic kidney stones, with obstruction confirmed by imaging or stone passage, along with 384 stone-free controls. Both groups completed an electronic food frequency questionnaire during a baseline study visit. Dietary risk factors were compared between groups. Dietary associations with validated symptomatic recurrence were analyzed in proportional hazards models, with adjustment for fluid and energy intake and for nondietary risk factors.

Baseline characteristics

A diet higher in calcium and potassium intake may help to reduce the risk of recurrent kidney stones, concludes a study in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

The prospective study included 411 patients with their first episode of symptomatic kidney stones, with obstruction confirmed by imaging or stone passage, along with 384 stone-free controls. Both groups completed an electronic food frequency questionnaire during a baseline study visit. Dietary risk factors were compared between groups. Dietary associations with validated symptomatic recurrence were analyzed in proportional hazards models, with adjustment for fluid and energy intake and for nondietary risk factors.

Baseline characteristics

Individual-level estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values differ substantially from measured GFR (mGFR) values, reports a study in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

The researchers analyzed data on 3223 participants in four US epidemiologic studies that included mGFR values. The mean age of participants was 59 years; 55% of participants were women, and 32% were Black.

The mGFR values were obtained using non-radiolabeled iothalamate in two studies, radiolabeled iothalamate in one study, and plasma clearance of iohexol in one study and were indexed to 1.73 m2 of body surface area. The eGFR values were calculated from

In patients with hemodialysis-dependent kidney failure, treatment with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), reports a preproof paper in Kidney International.

Using data from the US Renal Data System, the researchers performed a cohort study to assess the cardiac safety of azithromycin compared with amoxicillin-based antibiotics in patients on hemodialysis from 2007 through 2017. A separate cohort study compared azithromycin with levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that, like azithromycin, is known to prolong the QT interval.

The two studies included 381,306 treatment episodes with azithromycin versus 344,125 with amoxicillin-based antibiotics

A dual immune/solid organ transplant procedure has been successfully used to perform kidney transplantation without the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy in three children with a rare genetic disorder, according to a brief report in The New England Journal of Medicine (1). The study was led by Alice Bertaina, MD, PhD, of the Division of Stem Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine and associate professor of pediatrics at Stanford University.

The patients were three children (two siblings) with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disease associated with short stature due to bone dysplasia, glucocorticoid-resistant nephrotic syndrome,

For dialysis patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), anti-coagulation with apixaban—at both standard and below-label doses—lowers the risk of bleeding events compared with warfarin, concludes a study in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Using US Renal Data System data from 2013 to 2018, the researchers identified 17,156 Medicare beneficiaries with nonvalvular AF receiving maintenance hemodialysis. All patients (12,517) had a new prescription for warfarin, and 2382 patients had apixaban at a label-concordant dose of 5 mg twice daily, or 2257 patients had apixaban at a lower dose of 2.5 mg twice daily. Outcomes, including stroke or systemic

An analysis of a large cohort of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) adds new knowledge about risk factors for intracranial aneurysm (IA), including an increase in IA risk for women after menopause, according to a pre-proof paper in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.

The cross-sectional, population-based study included 2449 patients with ADPKD (median age, 55 years) from 26 nephrology centers in western France. On genetic analysis in 2386 patients, 67.6% had PKD1 pathogenic variants, and 19.0% had PKD2 pathogenic variants. The researchers analyzed the frequency of diagnosis of ruptured and unruptured IA, along with

The four-variable kidney failure risk equation (KFRE) is a better predictor of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) risk compared with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) alone, with or without adjustment for race, reports a study in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

The researchers used data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort to evaluate different eGFR equations for prediction of ESKD, defined as dialysis initiation or transplantation. The analysis included data on 3873 participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with a total of 13,902 2-year risk periods.

For each participant, eGFR was calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

Solid-organ transplant recipients can maintain peripheral immunity for up to 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection—especially with greater clinical severity—reports a pre-proof paper in Kidney International.

The researchers evaluated serologic and functional T-cell and B-cell immune memory against major immunogenic SARS-CoV-2 antigens. The cross-sectional study included two groups of COVID-19 convalescent patients: 53 solid-organ transplant recipients (38 kidney recipients) and 49 immunocompetent patients.

In both groups, patients were classified as having severe COVID-19, requiring hospitalization and supplemental oxygen; mild COVID-19, not requiring hospitalization; or asymptomatic infection. Immunologic assessments included SARS-CoV-2-specific serologic memory and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing memory B cells

For patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), discontinuing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) during episodes of hyperkalemia is associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular events, reports a pre-proof paper in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

The retrospective study included data on adult CKD patients with new episodes of RAASi-related hyperkalemia with a serum potassium level 5.5 mM or higher. Drawn from Canadian provincial databases, the analysis included 7200 patients in Manitoba and 71,290 patients in Ontario. The mean ages were 72.39 and 79.48 years, respectively. Several types of comorbidity were more frequent in the Manitoba cohort.

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