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WASHINGTON, DC – Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare but morbid complication of pregnancy, presenters said during Kidney Week 2019. Cases are rising in developed countries including the U.S., though, and understanding anatomic and physiologic changes is critical to understanding the diagnosis.
The number of obstetric AKI cases in the U.S. is on the increase, said Vesna D. Garovic, MD, PhD, a nephrologist with the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. A study1 of 11 million deliveries found these cases rose from 2.4 per 10,000 pregnancies in 1999-2001 to 6.3 per 10,000 pregnancies in 2010-2011, at a 10% yearly increase.
Focusing on the intensity of the executive branch’s sweeping proposals to radically change kidney care – and the transformational implications therein – the plenary session on November 9 at Kidney Week was far from ordinary. The State-of-the Art Lecture, “Perspectives on Innovation and Transformation in Kidney Care,” served as a crucible to distill down what should, and must, happen at this point to deliver a brighter future for people with kidney diseases.
WASHINGTON, DC – Air pollution, water pollutants, and global warming are among the environmental factors contributing to the development of kidney disease, according to a presenter at Kidney Week 2019.
The evidence is strongest for air pollution, said Ziyad Al-Aly, MD, FASN, chief of research and education for the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System in St. Louis. Fine particles of air pollutants less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter—about 1/20th the width of a human hair—can get into the capillaries when inhaled and exert effects on the body, he said. Common sources of such PM2.5 air pollution include land traffic (cars and trucks), power generation, residential energy, and biomass burning, as well as natural sources, such as forest fires.
WASHINGTON, DC – Kidney transplant recipients have an imbalance of gut bacteria marked by a lower diversity of organisms and increased levels of Proteobacteriae such as Escherichia coli compared with healthy renal donors, according to new research presented at Kidney Week 2019.
The study, comparing composition of the gut microbiome in 139 renal transplant recipients and 105 healthy donors, found over 195 significant differences throughout the taxonomy, said lead author J.C. Swarte, PhD, of University Medical Centre Groningen in the Netherlands (Abstract SA-OR103). This included 37 significant differences at the genus level and 135 significant differences at the species level. Recipients who had diarrhea (n=28) had even lower gut diversity.
WASHINGTON, DC – Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare but morbid complication of pregnancy, presenters said during Kidney Week 2019. Yet, cases are rising in developed countries, including the U.S., and understanding anatomic and physiologic changes is critical to understanding the diagnosis.
“The number of obstetric AKI cases in the U.S. is on the increase,” said Vesna D. Garovic, MD, PhD, a nephrologist with the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. A study1 of 11 million deliveries found these cases rose from 2.4 per 10,000 pregnancies in 1999-2001 to 6.3 per 10,000 pregnancies in 2010-2011, at a 10% yearly increase.
WASHINGTON, DC – The effects of plant-based diets and phosphorous restriction on kidney disease were the subject of two talks presented at Kidney Week 2019.
Plant-based diets may be good for people with kidney disease, said Juan Jesus Carrero, MD, PharmD, PhD, a professor of epidemiology with the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. Plant proteins had been viewed as having low biological value, he said, because when dietary guidelines were issued, it was believed impossible to acquire complete essential amino acids from plant foods. However, numerous trials and meta analyses conducted over the past 20 years have proved that theory wrong. Fruit and vegetable intake has been shown to offer numerous health benefits such as lowering the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death, and delaying the progression of kidney disease.
WASHINGTON – Caloric restriction, whether through diet, bariatric surgery, or new sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2) medications, could help improve measures of kidney disease in obese patients, according to a Kidney Week 2019 presentation.
As people gain weight, their metabolic rate increases, said Holly J. Kramer, MD, MPH, a professor of public health sciences and medicine in the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension at Loyola University in Chicago, during a talk on the direct and indirect effects of adiposity on the kidney. The kidneys then have to do more, and meet the increased demands by increasing the glomerular diameter so it hypertrophies, yielding an increase in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in renal plasma flow.
WASHINGTON, DC – Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have structural changes in the brain associated with poorer intelligence, executive function and academic achievement, compared to healthy children without the disease, according to new research from the University of Iowa presented at Kidney Week 2019 in a session entitled, “Pediatric CKD Is Associated with Abnormal White Matter Integrity”.