Nephrology of the Future: How Do We Get There?

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) impose a significant global health burden; however, only a few drug therapies are available for CKD, and no effective drug therapies currently exist for AKI. Development of pharmacologic therapies for AKI and CKD has been hampered by non-predictive animal models, the inability to identify and prioritize human targets, and an underlying poor understanding of human AKI and CKD. A growing consensus suggests that CKD and AKI are not homogeneous diseases; rather, they are heterogeneous disorders that contain specific subgroups that are driven by different disease pathways. Thus, a better understanding of