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Sex and Gender Differences Deserve More Study in Kidney Diseases

  • 1 Ruth Jessen Hickman, MD, is a graduate of the Indiana University School of Medicine. She is a freelance medical and science writer living in Bloomington, IN.
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Before the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act, women were largely underrep-resented in clinical trials, partly out of concerns for teratogenic effects. The act, passed in 1993, made it mandatory that clinical trials funded through NIH include data from women and minorities (1).

The percentage of women included in clinical trials has improved significantly since that time (2), although women are still underrepresented with respect to disease prevalence in some reports (3). However, data from men and women are often still aggregated together, and analyses based on sex are often not reported.

Clinical

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