Drug discovery and development is a lengthy and expensive process. Testing new agents in humans at an early stage can reduce the time and costs involved in identifying drugs that are likely to succeed in clinical studies. Implementation of a new drug in practice also requires the development of useful biomarkers of disease and of the drug’s efficacy, as well as sensitive molecular imaging techniques.
Nephrology relied on only a handful of therapeutics during the 1970s to 2000s for managing anemia, bone-mineral disease, glomerular diseases, and transplantation-related events. In the past 2 decades, there has been a steady rise in