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Cardiorenal Syndrome

  • 1 Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH, is Professor of Medicine and Vice Chair of Internal Medicine at Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.
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The complex interplay between the kidney and the heart where one organ dysfunction can initiate or accelerate the decline of the other was recently addressed at a KDIGO Controversies Conference on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of heart failure in kidney disease (1). Since cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is often observed in the setting of heart failure, CRS continues to be one of the highest topics of interest among those caring for medical patients in the hospital and for those in ambulatory primary and medical subspeciality care (2, 3). In 2019, Rangaswami et al. (

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