• Carrero J-J, et al.. Chronic kidney disease, gender, and access to care: a global perspective. Semin Nephrol 2017; 37:296-308.

Sex, Gender, and CKD Care

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Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 195,000 women worldwide and causes close to 600,000 deaths per year. A recent review in Seminars in Nephrology looks at patterns of care affecting the burden of CKD among women, noting important effects of sex, referring to biological differences; as well as gender, reflecting social differences.

Some biological differences between the sexes are well known but are typically not considered in CKD care. A prime example is anemia: although women typically have lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, current CKD guidelines do not include sex-specific targets for anemia. An issue