Independent of genetic factors, higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but not of myocardial infarction (MI) or death, suggests a twin study in JAMA Internal Medicine.

For patients on hemodialysis—particularly those with neurologic symptoms—the high risks of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may outweigh the benefits, according to a study in JAMA Surgery.

The retrospective analysis included data on 5142 dialysis-dependent patients undergoing CEA from 2006 to 2011 drawn from the US Renal Data System. Perioperative and long-term outcomes were assessed at a median follow-up of 2.5 years.

A sudden drop in kidney function in the few months before starting hemodialysis is associated with a threefold increase in the risk of death within the first year on dialysis, reports a study in The American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery are at lower risk of declining kidney function, independent of other factors, reports a study in Kidney International.

The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin slows kidney disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, reports a study in The New England Journal of Medicine.

In the population with type 2 diabetes, even modest changes in lifestyle and dietary risk factors could have a substantial effect on chronic kidney disease (CKD) cases and deaths, suggests a study in The American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

A bedside prediction model provides a simple approach to identifying patients at high risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery, reports a study in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.

The model was developed using prospectively collected data on 6061 patients undergoing cardiac surgery (other than transplantation) in Alberta between 2004 and 2009. Of these, 2.5% developed AKI requiring renal replacement therapy within 14 days after cardiac surgery.

In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), high urinary sodium excretion is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, concludes a study in The Journal of the American Medical Association

A high proportion of living kidney donors who have developed ESRD are never waitlisted for kidney transplantation, reports a study in Transplantation that was part of a special issue on living organ donation.

For patients with stage 3 acute kidney injury (AKI), early and delayed strategies for renal replacement therapy (RRT) yield similar mortality rates, concludes a randomized trial in The New England Journal of Medicine.