For highly sensitized patients on the UK transplant waiting list, HLA-incompatible (HLAi) kidney transplantation does not improve survival, compared to patients who remain on dialysis, reports a study in The Lancet.

From more than 25,500 patients on the UK transplant waiting list, the researchers identified 213 patients who underwent HLAi kidney transplantation from 2007 through 2013. Two-thirds of the recipients were female. Median age at transplantation was 44 years and median calculation reaction frequency 96%.

Undocumented immigrants with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from serious physical symptoms and psychosocial distress—particularly related to receiving hemodialysis on an “emergent-only” basis, reports a qualitative study in JAMA Internal Medicine.

The investigators performed semi-structured interviews with 20 undocumented Latino patients with ESRD seen at a safety-net hospital in Colorado. The patients were 10 men and 10 women, mean age 51 years. All had been in the United States for at least 5 years before ESRD diagnosis.

The mineralocorticoid receptor blocker spironolactone does not reduce the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, concludes a trial in American Journal of Kidney Diseases.

Renal biopsy can be useful in establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment in patients with diabetes—a population with a high prevalence of nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD), according to a meta-analysis in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.

The researchers identified and analyzed data on the frequency of diabetic nephropathy, NDRD, and “mixed” forms of kidney disease among patients with diabetes. The analysis included data on 4876 patients undergoing renal biopsy, reported in 48 studies.

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need a “multimodal, person-centered framework” to support disease self-management, with a special focus on everyday strategies, according to a study in BMC Nephrology.

The cross-sectional survey study solicited Australian CKD patients’ views on their desires for support in self-management of their disease. Thirty-six patients filled out a paper survey at a primary care clinic, and another 61 patients completed an online survey.

Tight glycemic control—with a blood glucose target of 80 to 110 mg/dL—does not improve outcomes for critically ill children, concludes a trial in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Diabetes is present in one-tenth of US adults being treated for HIV infection, suggests a study in BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.

The researchers compared the weighted prevalence of diabetes in two populations from nationally representative studies: 8610 HIV-infected adults from the Medical Monitoring Project and 5604 general population subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (2009-10 data from both studies). Diabetes was assessed as a physician diagnosis or use of medications for diabetes.

A growing understanding of the health and psychosocial risks associated with being a living kidney donor is helping drive innovations that will improve the informed consent process, according to recent research.

More than 1 billion people worldwide now have hypertension, with the highest levels now seen in low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, according to a report in The Lancet.

The NCD Risk Factor Collaboration analyzed pooled data from 1479 studies that had measured blood pressure in 19.1 million adults. The researchers analyzed trends in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure from 1975 to 2015, as well as the prevalence of raised blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg or higher) in 200 countries.

Among patients initiating dialysis, mortality is higher for those with a primary indication of volume overload or hypertension, suggests a study in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases.